Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Preoperative and Postoperative Pain Experience among Patients in Surgical Wards of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Rivers State Nigeria

Aminaho .


This study assessed preoperative and postoperative pain experience among patients in surgical wards of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Rivers State, Nigeria. The study is a descriptive survey conducted in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) a five star tertiary healthcare institution in Rivers State, Nigeria. The target population included all patients present in male and female surgical ward at the time of conducting the research which totaled 102. The entire patients were selected for the study using the purposive sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was a self structured validated scale titled “Preoperative and Postoperative Pain Experience Assessment Questionnaire (PPEAQ)” with a reliability index of 0.88. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Software version 16. Results revealed that out of the 102 patients studied, 10(9.80%) of the patients experienced preoperative pain while 92(90.1%) did not; 3(12.7%) experienced mild postoperative pain, 45(44.12%) had moderate pain postoperatively while 44(43.13%) experienced severe postoperative pain. The study concludes that majority of patients do not experience pain before surgery while a significant proportion of patients experience moderate pain postoperatively. There is the need for Policy formulation on pain assessment necessary for preoperative and postoperative pain management should be embarked on by the various health care facilities as this would serve as guidelines for effective pain assessment and management.

Full Text:



Garland EL (Sep 2012), “Pain Processing in the Human Nervous System: A Selective Review of Nociceptive and Biobehavioral Pathways”, Prim Care, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp. 561–571.

Navratilova E, Porreca F (Oct 2014), “Reward and motivation in pain and pain relief”, Nat Neurosci., Volume 17, Issue 10, pp. 1304–1312.

Gatchel RJ, Peng YB, Peters ML, Fuchs PN, Turk DC (2007), “The biopsychosocial approach to chronic pain: scientific advances and future directions”, PsycholBull, Volume 133, Issue 4, pp. 581–624.

International Association for the Study of Pain (1994), “IASP terminology”, Available at:, Accessed 16th Jun, 2017.

Wells N, Pasero C, McCaffery M (2008), “Improving the Quality of Care through Pain Assessment and Management”, Available at, Accessed on 15th June, 2017.

Apfelbaum JL, Chen C, Mehta SS, Gan TJ (2003), “Postoperative pain experience: results from a national survey suggest postoperative pain continues to be undermanaged”, Anesth Analg, Volume 97, pp. 534–540.

Linberg MF, Miaskowski C, Rustoen T, Rosseland LA, Paul SM, Lerdal A (2016), “Preoperative Pain, Symptoms, and Psychological Factors related to Higher Acute Pain Trajectories during Hospitalization for Total Knee Arthroplasty”, PLoS One., Volume 11, Issue 9, pp. 1-20

Gerbershagen HJ, Aduckathil S, Van Wijck AJ, Peelen LM, Kalkman CJ, Meissner W (2013), “Pain intensity on the first day after surgery: a prospective cohort study comparing 179 surgical procedures”, Anesthesiology, Volume 118, Issue 4, pp. 934–944.

Tsirline VB, Colavita PD, Belvansky I, Zemiyak AY, Lincourt AE, Heniford BT (Aug 2013), “Preoperative pain is the strongest predictor of postoperative pain and diminished quality of life after ventral hernia repair”, Am Surg., Volume 79, Issue 8, pp. 829−836.


  • There are currently no refbacks.