Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Pain and Different Types of Pain Killers

Dr Gurmeet Singh Sarla

Abstract


Pain is an unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony and is quantifiable on various available pain scales. Pain threshold of individuals vary and it is entirely a subjective phenomenon. Analgesic alludes to a prescription that gives relief from torment.  The largest group of over-the-counter painkillers are NSAIDs which do not contain steroids and are used in the treatment of many different kinds of pain, including headaches, dysmenorrhoea, backache and toothache. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is another very widely used analgesic which also relieves pain and lowers fever but unlike NSAIDs it doesn't reduce inflammation. Opioids are the most effective drugs in the treatment of severe pain but if not used judiciously have serious side effects and dependence. Clove oil, camphor, menthol are extensively used in dentistry as good analgesics. Capsaicin, oil of camphor, Curcumin (turmeric), cod liver oil and green tea have been used as natural/herbal analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents. Therapeutic heat, cryotherapy, ultrasonic therapy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation that use low voltage electric current to relieve pain are effective and safer physical modalities available for treatment of low backache.


Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization (WHO) (1988), “WHO’s pain ladder for adults”, Available at: http://www.who.int/cancer/palliative/painladder/en/

National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) (2014), “Adult cancer pain”, NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guidelines) 2014, Available at: https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/default.aspx

Walsh SL, Nuzzo PA, Lofwall MR, Holtman JR., Jr (2008), “The relative abuse liability of oral oxycodone, hydrocodone and hydromorphone assessed in prescription opioid abusers”, Drug Alcohol Depend., Volume 98, Issue 3, pp. 191–202, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.05.007

McDonald DC, Carlson K, Izrael D. (2012), “Geographic variation in opioid prescribing in the U.S.”, J. Pain., Volume 13, Issue 10, pp. 988–996, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2012.07.007

Cleary J, Simha N, Panieri A, et al. (2013), “Formulary availability and regulatory barriers to accessibility of opioids for cancer pain in India: a report from the Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI)”, Ann Oncol ESMO. Volume 24, Supplement 11, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdt501

International Pain Summit of the International Association for the Study of Pain (2011), “Declaration of Montreal: declaration that access to pain management is a fundamental human right”, J. Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother., Volume 25, Issue 1, pp. 29–31 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/15360288.2010.547560

Lord R, McCollough JB, Smeltz A. “Overdosed: How doctors wrote the script for an epidemic”, Available at: http://newsinteractive.post-gazette.com/overdosed/

Lembke A. (2013), “Why doctors prescribe opioids to known opioid abusers”, N. Engl. J. Med., DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmp1208498

Rudd RA, Aleshire N, Zibbell JE, Gladden RM. (2000), “Increases in drug and opioid overdose death – United States”, CDC morbidity and mortality weekly report, Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm655051e1.htm

Velasquez G, Santa Cruz L, Espinoza M. (2014), “Ketoprofen is more effective than diclofenac after oral surgery when used as a preemptive analgesic: a pilot study”, J. Oral Facial Pain Headache, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp. 153–158, Available at: http://www.quintpub.com/journals/ofph/full_txt_pdf_alert.php?article_id=14446

Gupta R. (2014), “Pain Management: Essential Topics for Examinations”, Berlin (Heidelberg): Springer Berlin Heidelberg; Spinal Cord Stimulation; pp. 121–122.

Gazal G, Al-Samadani KH. (2017), “Comparison of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and diclofenac potassium for pain relief following dental extractions and deep cavity preparations”, Saudi Med. J., Volumr38, Issue 3, pp. 284–291, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15537%2Fsmj.2017.3.16023

George J, Hegde S, Rajesh KS, Kumar A. (2009), “The efficacy of a herbal-based toothpaste in the control of plaque and gingivitis: A clinico-biochemical study”, Indian J. Dent. Res., Volume 20, pp. 480–482, Available at: http://www.ijdr.in/article.asp?issn=0970-9290;year=2009;volume=20;issue=4;spage=480;epage=482;aulast=George

Mahboubi M, Kazempour N. (2009), “The antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Perovskia abrotanoides Karel and its main components”, Indian J. Pharm. Sci., Volume 71, pp. 343–347, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2F0250-474X.56016

Alvarado LT, Perry GM, Hargreaves KM, Henry MA. (2007), “TRPM8 Axonal expression is decreased in painful human teeth with irreversible pulpitis and cold hyperalgesia”, J. Endod., Volume 33, pp. 1167–1171, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2007.06.018

Agarwal AK, Agarwal A. (2010), “A study of dysmenorrhea during menstruation in adolescent girls”, Indian J. Community Med., Volume 35, pp. 159–164, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2F0970-0218.62586

Alsaleem MA. (2018), “Dysmenorrhea, associated symptoms, and management among students at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia: An exploratory study”, J. Family Med. Prim. Care., Volume 7, Issue 4, pp. 769–774, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_113_18

Gurmeet Singh Sarla (2018), “MRI Evaluation in Lumbar PIVD”, Biomed J Sci. & Tech. Res., Volume 9, Issue 4, DOI: https://doi.org/10.26717/BJSTR.2018.09.001848

Mens JM. (2005), “The use of medication in low back pain”, Best Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol., Volume 19, Issue 4, pp. 609-621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2005.03.011

Aronson MD. (1997), “Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, traditional opioids, and tramadol: contrasting therapies for the treatment of chronic pain”, Clin. Ther., Volume19, pp. 420–432, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-2918(97)80127-0

“Principles of analgesic use in the treatment of acute pain and cancer pain” 4th ed. Glenview (IL): American Pain Society, (1999).

Braverman DL, Slipman CW, Lenrow DA. (2001), “Using gabapentin to treat failed back surgery syndrome caused by epidural fibrosis: a report of 2 cases”, Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., Volume 82, pp. 691–693, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/apmr.2001.21867

Hong JY, Song KS, Cho JH, Lee JH. (2017), “An Updated Overview of Low Back Pain Management in Primary Care”, Asian Spine J., Volume 11, Issue 4, pp. 653–660, DOI: https://doi.org/10.4184/asj.2017.11.4.653

Malmivaara A, Hakkinen U, Aro T, et al. (1995), “The treatment of acute low back pain—bed rest, exercises, or ordinary activity?”, N. Engl. J. Med., Volume 332, pp. 351–355, DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199506293322612

Nadler SF, Steiner DJ, Erasala GN, Hengehold DA, Abeln SB, Weingand KW. (2003), “Continuous low-level heatwrap therapy for treating acute nonspecific low back pain”, Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil., Volume 84, pp. 329–334, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/apmr.2003.50102

Constant F, Collin JF, Guillemin F, Boulange M. (1995), “Effectiveness of spa therapy in chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial”, J. Rheumatol., Volume 22, pp. 1315–1320, Available at: https://europepmc.org/article/med/7562765

Deyo RA, Walsh NE, Martin DC, Schoenfeld LS, Ramamurthy S. (1990), “A controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and exercise for chronic low back pain”, N Engl J Med., Volume 322, pp. 1627–1634, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199006073222303

Bernstein JE, Bickers DR, Dahl MV, Roshal JY. (1987), “Treatment of chronic postherpetic neuralgia with topical capsaicin. A preliminary study”, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., Volume 17, pp. 93–98, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0190-9622(87)70178-9

Curtis CL, Hughes CE, Flannery CR, Little CB, Harwood JL, Caterson B. (2000), “N-3 fatty acids specifically modulate catabolic factors involved in articular cartilage degradation”, J. Bio. Chem., Volume 275, pp. 721–724, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.275.2.721

Yang CS, Wang ZY. (1993), “Tea and cancer: A review”, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., Volume 85, pp. 1038–1049, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/85.13.1038

Dr (Colonel) Gurmeet Singh Sarla (2019), “Consuming Tea: A Healthy Habit or a Health Hazard”, JMSCR, Volume 7, Issue 5, pp. 771−775, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18535/jmscr/v7i5.123


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.