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Role of NMDA and Dopamine Receptor against Neurodegenerative Disease: A Comprehensive Review

Prashant Tiwari, G. V. Mohan Das, Mahesh Rachamalla, Jyotirmaya Sahoo, Shweta Shrivastava

Abstract


Neurodegenerative disease is the illness that encompasses the death of the certain parts of the brain. Irregularities of neurotransmitters like NMDA and dopamine receptors may attributes Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease that are most severe and common movement disorders. Neurodegenerative disease is characterized by the memory loss, apathy, anxiety, agitation, forgetfulness, tremor and bradykinesia. About ten million people across the globe are being affected from neurological disorders. NMDA and dopamine receptors and their interaction control numerous function in the brain. Due to the lack of dopamine causes pathological changes in the basal ganglia. Glutamate receptor modulate neurotransmission may slow the disease progression by delaying dopamine neuron degeneration. NMDA receptors may improve motor symptoms and neurodegeneration.  Most of the pathological activity is associated with neurotransmitter receptors. However, many drugs failed due to their poor therapeutic utility. So there is necessity to develop new drugs that can target the specific pathways. There are additional challenges and opportunities for future studies that are beyond the scope of this review. Further studies are also needed to elucidate the multifaceted cross-talk between neurotransmitters, their receptors and signalling cascade.  


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