Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Assessment of Vehicle Emission Inventories at Urban Roads using Principal Component Analysis

Subrata Roy, Saurav Barua

Abstract


The study endeavored to develop the vehicle emission inventory by analyzing quantity, quality and probable sources of pollutants in the atmosphere of two different road segments of Dhaka city. One road is a major arterial road (R1), where traffic comprises with large portion of motor cars and another road is a national highway (R2), where traffic comprises with heavy vehicles, such as, buses, trucks and freight vehicle. Vehicle emission monitoring revealed that CO2 shared more than 99% of total air pollutants, which is a major greenhouse gas resulting global warming. Two models were proposed to estimate vehicle emission inventory using Principal component analysis (PCA), where PCA1 and PCA2 were developed for the vehicle emission inventory of R1 and R2 road respectively. Each of the model have two components, where first component comprised with particulate matter PM10, SO2, black and organic carbon and second component comprised with CO2 and CH4 gases. The PCA1 and PCA2 can explain 96.28% and 98.63% variability of measured dataset respectively. The proposed technique can help the concerned authority to explore vehicle emission inventory with better accuracy.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Iqbal A., Allan A. and Zito R. (2016), “Meso-scale on-road vehicle emission inventory approach: a study on Dhaka City of Bangladesh supporting the ‘cause-effect’ analysis of the transport system”, Environ. Monit. and Assess., Volume 188, Issue 3, pp. 149, Available at: https://link.springer. com/article/10.1007/s10661-016-5151-4.

Reynolds C. C. and Kandlikar M. (2008), “Climate impacts of air quality policy: switching to a natural gas-fueled public transportation system in New Delhi”, Enviro. Sci. Tech., Volume 42, Issue 16, pp. 5860-5865, Available at: https://pubs.acs.org/ doi/abs/10.1021/es702863p.

Wadud Z. and Khan T. (2011), “CNG conversion of motor vehicles in Dhaka: valuation of the co-benefits”, Trans. Res. Board 90th annu. meeting was held in Washington, DC, Available at: https://www. academia.edu/5402318/CNG_Conversion_of_Motor_Vehicles_in_Dhaka_Valuation_of_the_Co_benefits.

Wu X., Wu Y., Zhang S., Liu H., Fu L. and Hao J. (2016), “Assessment of vehicle emission programs in China during 1998- 2013: Achievement, challenges and implications”, Enviro. Pollu., Volume 214, pp. 556-567, Available at: https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.04.042.

Parrish D. D. (2006), “Critical evaluation of US on-road vehicle emission inventories”, Atmosp. Enviro., Volume 40, Issue 13, pp. 2288-2300, Available at: https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.atmosenv.2005.11.033.

Wang X., Ho K. F., Chow J. C., Kohl S. D., Chan C.S., Cui L., Lee S. C. F., Chen L. W. A., Ho S. S. H., Cheng Y. and Watson J. G. (2018), “Hong Kong vehicle emission changes from 2003 to 2015 in the Shing Mun Tunnel”, Aerosol Sci. and Tech., Volume 52, Issue 10, pp. 1085-1098, Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02786826.2018.1456650.

Karim M. M. (1999), “Traffic pollution inventories and modeling in metropolitan Dhaka, Bangladesh”, Trans. Res. Part D: Trans. and Enviro., Volume 4, Issue 5, pp. 291-312, Available at: https://doi.org/10. 1016/S1361-9209(99)00010-3.

Iqbal A., Allan A. and Afroze S. (2014), “On-road vehicular emission inventory in view of its distribution over Dhaka City, Bangladesh: a bottom-up modelling approach to support sustainability assessment”, J. of Econo. and Sustai. Develop., Volume 5, Issue 18, pp. 34-44, Available at: https://www.iiste.org/ Journals/index.php/JEDS/article/view/16029.

Jolliffe I. T. and Cadima J. (2016), “Principal component analysis: A review and recent developments”, The Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engg. Sci., Volume 374, Issue 2065, Available at: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsta.2015.0202.

Lever J., Krzywinski M. and Altman N. (2017), “Points of significance: Principal component analysis”, Nat. Methods, Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/ 318165429_Points_of_Significance_Principal_component_analysis.

Naik G. R. ed. (2018), “Advances in Principal Component Analysis: Research and Development”, Springer, Available at: https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9789811067037.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.