Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Improvement of Structural Robustness Against Progressive Collapse of the Structure using In-Fill Walls

B S Keerthi Gowda, V Lokesh, G L Easwara Prasad


Despite the increasing concern in progressive collapse resistant design and analysis of reinforced concrete building it was triggered by accidental and man-made extreme events occurred over the last couple of decades. Only a few studies, especially numerical ones have been carried out so far on the role of masonry infill walls on it. Much the same as on account of seismic tremor building application, infills are typically considered as non-structural or architectural components. Thus, its resistance is omitted; likewise, present design norms do not give explicit signs concerning this point. Although such considerations lead to an ease in work of design and analysis of structural elements, it may also give rise to misleading and overly conservative results, considering masonry-infills also may result in additional vertical resistance. Consequently, this article gives the results of an enormous number of progressive collapse simulations planned for evaluating the impacts of infill walls on the vertical load-carrying limits of reinforced concrete frames for various areas of damage. Thus, it is important to evaluate the interaction between the structural elements and surrounding frames at different stages of the response. The present article portrays the outcomes after validation of the proposed model which was utilized to anticipate behavioral changes in the reaction of infilled reinforced concrete structures, as a result of parametric varieties in the geometry of the selected models. Counterpart bare frames were also analyzed to present a vice-versa comparison in terms of resistance and demand capacity of both the structures.

Full Text:



Graham Powell (2005), “Progressive collapse: Case study using nonlinear analysis”, Proc. of the 2005 Stru. Cong. and the 2005 Foren. Engg. Sym., New York, Available at:

John R. Hayes Jr., Stanley C. Woodson, Robert G. Pekelnicky and Chris D. Poland (2005), “Can strengthening for earthquake improve blast and progressive collapse resistance”, J. Struct. Engg., Volume 131, Issue 8, pp. 1157-1177, Available at:

Yihai Bao, Sashi K. Kunnath, Sherif El-Tawil and H. S. Lew (2008), “Macromodel-based simulation of progressive collapse: RC frame structures”, J. Struct. Engg., Volume 134, Issue 7, Available at: (ASCE)0733-9445(2008)134:7(1079).

Yagob, K. Galal and N. Naumoski (2009), “Progressive collapse of reinforced concrete structures” Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Volume 32, Issue 6, pp. 771-786, e-ISSN: 1598-6217, Available at:

D. Asprone, F. Jalayer, A. Prota and G. Manfredi (2010), “Proposal of a probabilistic model for multi-hazard risk assessment of structures in seismic zones subjected to blast for the limit state of collapse”, Structural Safety, Elsevier, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp. 25-34, Available at: strusafe.2009.04.002.

H. M. Elsanadedy, T. H. Almusallam, H. Abbas, Y.A. Al-Salloum and S.H. Alsayed (2010), “Effect of blast loading on CFRP Retrofitted RC Columns - A numerical study”, Latin American J. of Solids and Struct., Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 55-82, Available at:

Jun Yu and Kang-Hai Tan (2011), “Experimental and numerical investigation on progressive collapse resistance of reinforced concrete beam column sub-assemblages”, Engg. Struc., Elsevier, Volume 8, pp. 90-106, Available at: 7. 2011.08.040.

H. R. Tavakoli and A. Rashidi Alashti (2012), “Evaluation of progressive collapse potential of multi-story moment resisting steel frame buildings under lateral loading”, Scientia Iranica, Elsevier, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp. 77-86, Available at: scient.2012.12.008.

H. M. Elsanadedy, T.H. Almusallam, Y.R. Alharbi, Y.A. Al-Salloum and H. Abbas (2014), “Progressive collapse potential of a typical steel building due to blast attacks”, J. of Construc. Steel Res., Elsevier, Volume 101, pp. 143-157, Available at: 1016/j.jcsr.2014.05.005.

Yousef Al-Salloum, Tarek Almusallam, Tuan Duc Ngo, Hussein M. Elsanadedy and H. Abbas (2015), “Progressive Collapse Analysis of RC Buildings against Internal Blast”, Adv. in Struc. Engg., Volume 18, Issue 12, pp. 2181-2191, DOI: 10.1260/1369-4332.18.12.2181.

Saleh H. Alsayed, H.M. Elsanadedy, Zaki M. Al-Zaheri, Yousef A. Al-Salloum and H. Abbas (2016), “Blast response of GFRP-strengthened infill masonry walls”, Construc. and Build. Mat., Elsevier, Volume 115, pp. 438-451, Available at: 1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.04.053.

Kaiqi Lin, Yi Li Xinzheng Lu and Hong Guan (2017), “Effects of Seismic and Progressive Collapse Designs on the Vulnerability of RC Frame Structures”, J. of Perform. of Const. Facili., Volume 31, Issue 1, Available at:

Y.A. Al-Salloum, H. Abbas, T.H. Almusallam, T. Ngo and P. Mendis (2017), “Progressive Collapse Analysis of a Typical RC High-Rise Tower”, J. of King Saud Uni. of Engg. Sci., Elsevier, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp. 311-320, Available at: 2017.06.005.

Sandy I. Yansiku (2017), ‘‘Impact of Artificially Seismic Loading on the Response of Building Structure in Various Site Classifications”, J. of King Saud Uni. of Engg. Sci., Elsevier, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp. 302-312, Available at: jksues.2017.06.002.

Tarek Almusallam, Yousef Al-Salloum, Tuan Ngo, Priyan Mendis and Husain Abbas (2017), “Experimental investigation of progressive collapse potential of ordinary and special moment-resisting reinforced concrete frames”, Mat. and Struc. Springer, Volume 50, Issue 137, Available at:

Rohola Rahnavarda, Faramarz Fathi Zadeh Fardb, Ali Hosseinic and Mohamed Suleimand (2018), “Nonlinear analysis on Progressive collapse of tall steel composite buildings”, Case Studies in Construc. Mat., Volume 8, pp. 359-379, Available at: j.cscm.2018.03.001.