Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Pectin as a Versatile Biodegradable Polymer

Harsh Pathak, Sonal Pande, Munaf Jiwani, Mehul Rohit, Rajesh Ankalge

Abstract


An investigation has been undertaken to assess, in vitro, the potential of several pectin formulations as a versatile polymer in various drug delivery systems. Literature review was studied on the release of model compounds from various drug delivery systems under conditions pertaining to those in vivo. The monitoring of release gives a sensitive indication of the behavior of the pectin under the different conditions. The type of pectin, the presence of calcium and the solubility of the calcium salt all influence release. Additionally, pectins with a low degree of methoxylation were more susceptible to enzymatic breakdown. Calcium enhanced the enzymatic activity. Rheological studies indicate that gel strength was a factor in determining release. This suggested that either a high methoxy pectin formulation or a low methoxy pectin with a carefully controlled amount of calcium should maximize colonies specificity by providing optimal protection of a drug during its transit to the colon and a high susceptibility to enzymic attack. On the other hand, this may also enhance mucoadhesive contributing in favor of other oral dosage forms.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Ashford M, Fell J, Attwood D, Sharma H, Woodhead P (1 Jul, 1994), “Studies on pectin formulations for colonic drug delivery”, Journal of Controlled Release, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp. 225−232.

Oakenfull DG (2008), “The chemistry of Monomer, Polymers and Composites from Renewable Resources”, Elsevier, pp. 495−516, Amsterdam.

Available at https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/441476#section=2D-Structure. Cited on 18 December 2018.

Fishman ML, Chau HK, Qi PX, Hotchkiss AT, Garcia RA, Cooke PH (1 Apr, 2015), “Characterization of the global structure of low methoxyl pectin in solution”, Food hydrocolloids, Volume 46, pp. 153−159.

Sharma BR, Naresh L, Dhuldhoya NC, Merchant SU, Merchant UC (Jun 2006), “An overview on pectins”, Times Food Processing Journal, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp. 44−51.

Voragen AG, Pilnik W, Jean-François Thibault, MAV Axelos (5 Jun, 1995), “Food polysaccharides and their applications”, Volume 67, Issue 287.

Liu L, Fishman ML, Kost J, Hicks KB (1 Aug, 2003), “Pectin-based systems for colon-specific drug delivery via oral route”, Biomaterials, Volume 24, Issue 19, pp. 3333−3343.

Ruben GC (5 Jul, 1988), “Use of pectin or pectin-like material in water-based ceramics”, United States patent US, Volume 4, Issue 755, pp. 494.

Munjeri O, Collett JH, Fell JT (Jan 1997), “Amidated pectin hydrogel beads for colonic drug delivery-an in vitro study”, Drug Delivery, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp. 207−211.

Sriamornsak P (1 Aug, 2011), “Application of pectin in oral drug delivery”, Expert opinion on drug delivery, Volume 8, Issue 8, pp. 1009−1023.

Schmidgall J, Hensel A (1 Oct, 2002), “Bioadhesive properties of polygalacturonides against colonic epithelial membranes”, International journal of biological macromolecules, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp. 217−225.

Liu P, Krishnan TR (Feb 1999), “Alginate‐pectin‐poly‐L‐lysine particulate as a potential controlled release formulation”, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 51, Issue 2, pp. 141−149.

Marras-Marquez T, Peña J, Veiga-Ochoa MD (20 Feb, 2015), “Robust and versatile pectin-based drug delivery systems. International journal of pharmaceutics”, Volume 479, Issue 2, pp. 265−276.

Kumpugdee-Vollrath M, Tabatabaeifar M, Helmis M (2014), “New coating materials based on mixtures of shellac and pectin for pharmaceutical products”, International Journal of Medical, Health, Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 21−29.

Rubinstein A, Radai R, Ezra M, Pathak S, Rokem JS (Feb 1993), “In vitro evaluation of calcium pectinate: a potential colon-specific drug delivery carrier”, Pharmaceutical research, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp. 258−263.

Kim H, Fassihi R (1 Mar, 1997), “Application of a binary polymer system in drug release rate modulation. 1. Characterization of release mechanism”, Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 86, Issue 3, pp. 316−322.

Liu L, Fishman ML, Hicks KB (1 Feb, 2007), “Pectin in controlled drug delivery–a review”, Cellulose, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp. 15−24.

Wu B, Chen Z, Wei X, Sun N, Lu Y, Wu W (1 Nov, 2007), “Biphasic release of indomethacin from HPMC/pectin/calcium matrix tablet: I. Characterization and mechanistic study”, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp. 707−714.

Aydin Z, Akbugˇa J (21 Jun 1996), “Preparation and evaluation of pectin beads”, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 137, Issue 1, pp. 133−136.

Bourgeois S, Laham A, Besnard M, Andremont A, Fattal E (1 Jun, 2005), “In vitro and in vivo evaluation of pectin beads for the colon delivery of β-lactamases”, Journal of drug targeting, Volume 13, Issue 5, pp. 277−284.

Fishman ML, Chau HK, Qi PX, Hotchkiss AT, Garcia RA, Cooke PH (1 Apr, 2015), “Characterization of the global structure of low methoxyl pectin in solution”, Food hydrocolloids, Volume 46, pp. 153−159.

Fernandez-Hervas MJ, Fell JT (30 Jun, 1998), “Pectin/chitosan mixtures as coatings for colon-specific drug delivery: an in vitro evaluation”, International journal of pharmaceutics, Volume 169, Issue 1, pp. 115−119.

Sriamornsak P, Thirawong N, Weerapol Y, Nunthanid J, Sungthongjeen S (1 Aug, 2007), “Swelling and erosion of pectin matrix tablets and their impact on drug release behavior”, European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, Volume 67, Issue 1, pp. 211−219.

Mishra S, Pathak K (1 Jun, 2008), “Formulation and evaluation of oil entrapped gastroretentive floating gel beads of loratadine”, Acta Pharmaceutica, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp. 187−197.

Macleod GS, Fell JT, Collett JH, Sharma HL, Smith AM (5 Oct, 1999), “Selective drug delivery to the colon using pectin: chitosan: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose film coated tablets”, International journal of pharmaceutics, Volume 187, Issue 2, pp. 251−257.

Wei X, Chen Z, Lu Y, Xu H, Chen G, Wu W (15 Aug, 2009), “Physicochemical characterization of a pectin/calcium matrix containing a large fraction of calcium chloride: Implications for sigmoidal release characteristics”, Journal of applied polymer science, Volume 113, Issue 4, pp. 2418−2428.

Patel N, Patel J, Gandhi T, Soni T, Shah S (Jul 2008), “Novel pharmaceutical approaches for colon-specific drug delivery: An overview”, J Pharm Res., Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 2−10.

Ribeiro LN, Alcântara AC, Darder M, Aranda P, Araújo-Moreira FM, Ruiz-Hitzky E (10 Mar, 2014), “Pectin-coated chitosan–LDH bionanocomposite beads as potential systems for colon-targeted drug delivery”, International journal of pharmaceutics, Volume 463, Issue 1, pp. 1−9.

Wattanakorn N, Asavapichayont P, Nunthanid J, Limmatvapirat S, Sungthongjeen S, Chantasart D, Sriamornsak P (1 Jun, 2010), “Pectin-based bioadhesive delivery of carbenoxolone sodium for aphthous ulcers in oral cavity”, Aaps Pharmscitech, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp. 743−751.

Thirawong N, Nunthanid J, Puttipipatkhachorn S, Sriamornsak P (1 Aug, 2007), “Mucoadhesive properties of various pectins on gastrointestinal mucosa: an in vitro evaluation using texture analyzer”, European journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 67, Issue 1, pp. 132−140.

Wakerly Z, Fell JT, Attwood D, Parkins D (1 Aug, 1996), “Pectin/ethylcellulose film coating formulations for colonic drug delivery”, Pharmaceutical research, Volume 13, Issue 8, pp. 1210−1212.

Macleod GS, Fell JT, Collett JH (14 Nov, 1997), “Studies on the physical properties of mixed pectin/ethylcellulose films intended for colonic drug delivery”, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 157, Issue 1, pp. 53−60.

Vervoort L, Kinget R (8 Mar, 1996), “In vitro degradation by colonic bacteria of inulinHP incorporated in Eudragit RS films”, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 129, Issue 1-2, pp. 185−190.

Villar-Lopez ME, Otero-Espinar FJ, Blanco-Mendez J (2000), “Preliminary studies on mixtures of surelease: pectin as coating formulation of pellets”, In Proceedings of the 3rd world meeting APV/APGI, pp. 861−862.

Kim H, Fassihi R (1 Mar, 1997), “Application of a binary polymer system in drug release rate modulation. 1. Characterization of release mechanism”, Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 86, Issue 3, pp. 316−322.

Turkoglu M, Ugurlu T (1 Jan, 2002), “In vitro evaluation of pectin–HPMC compression coated 5-aminosalicylic acid tablets for colonic delivery”, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp. 65−73.

Kim H, Fassihi R (Mar 1997), “Application of binary polymer system in drug release rate modulation. 2. Influence of formulation variables and hydrodynamic conditions on release kinetics”, Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, Volume 86, Issue 3, pp. 323−328.

Ofori-Kwakye K, Fell JT (11 Sep, 2001), “Biphasic drug release: the permeability of films containing pectin, chitosan and HPMC”, International journal of pharmaceutics, Volume 226, Issue 1-2, pp. 139−145.

Liu LS, Kost J (2000), “Nano-and microspheres from natural polymers. Sustained‐release injectable products”, pp. 203−240.

Meshali MM, Gabr KE (5 Feb, 1993), “Effect of interpolymer complex formation of chitosan with pectin or acacia on the release behaviour of chlorpromazine HCl”, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 89, Issue 3, pp. 177−181.

Macleod GS, Fell JT, Collett JH (15 Oct, 1999), “An in vitro investigation into the potential for bimodal drug release from pectin/chitosan/HPMC-coated tablets”, International journal of pharmaceutics, Volume 188, Issue 1, pp. 11−18.

Available at http://www.ipindia.nic.in/patents.htm cited on 5 august 2019

Available at https://www.uspto.gov/ cited on 5 August 2019


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.