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Antenatal Examination – A Way to Ensure the Well Being of Unborn

Madhubala Canapathy, ManjuBala Dash

Abstract


A thorough and general abdominal examination after twenty eight weeks of gestation will diagnose the lie, presentation, position and therefore the angle of the fetus. It is not unlikely that the lie and presentation of the fetus may amendment, particularly in association with excess liquor amnii and therefore periodic checkup is important. Pregnancy is a creative and productive period in the life of women. It is one of the vital events, which needs special care from conception to postnatal period. This experience of the pregnancy is not always blissful. The objective of antenatal care is to assure that every pregnancy gives away a healthy baby without harming the health of the mother. It is also focused to prevent or detect the complications earliest. Most of the women pass through the period with specific assessment, supportive measures and encouragement. Life threatening conditions place the women and fetus at risk for significant mortality and morbidity. As per the Nursing education curriculum, Obstetrical and midwifery Nursing is one of the final-year subjects. Obstetrical assessment includes the assessment of women's abdomen for fetal lie, presentation, position, and wellbeing.  The antenatal periods will be effectively managed with the assistance of correct obstetric assessment that successively helps in creating early selections relating to the place and mode of delivery. The strategies wont to establish foetal position, presentation, attitude, engagement, and well-being includes prenatal diagnosis, vaginal examination, and abdominal examination. Ultrasonography is not cost-effective as the equipment is costly and its use requires expertise. Vaginal examination is only used when women are in active labor because its accuracy depends on dilatation and effacement of the cervix along with descent of the fetus presenting part. This accentuates the need for accurate obstetrical palpation which is performed by the student nurses or registered nurses. It is a procedure and it will not require any equipment and special settings and it can be performed by a trained nurse at any time of the day, establishing its popularity as the most feasible test of fetal wellbeing. The importance of palpation in antenatal examination is a globally acclaimed fact. As stated by Crede and Leopald in 1982, the four maneuver techniques in antenatal palpation ensure identification of the fetal presentation, lie, attitude, position of different parts of the body and well-being. Preliminaries are Verbal consent for examination is taken. The patient is asked to evacuate the bladder. Abdomen is fully exposed. The examiner stands on the right side of the patient. It is done to determine the position, presentation of the fetus in utero, to the determination of singles versus multiple gestation and to aid in location of FHR. Antenatal examination is indicated for pregnant mothers of Gestational week above 28 weeks, prior to auscultation of fetal heart and throughout labour. The procedure is avoided for cases with placental abruption, placenta previa and preterm labour.


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