Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

The Impact of Persistent Vomiting Among the Women in Early Pregnancy

A. Alageswari, Mrs. ManjuBala Dash


Hyperemesis Gravidarum is the serious and life-threatening conditions. It is prolonged upto 16 weeks of gestation. 70% of pregnant women commonly affected with nausea and 60% of pregnant women with vomiting. The exact incidence of persistent or hyperemesis gravidarum was not known, but it was ranged from 3 in 1000 to 2 in 1000 pregnancies. The causes of hyperemesis during the pregnancy is still unclear or uncertain or unknown. Particularly, increased levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), increased free thyroxin (FT4), and decreased levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) these may induce the excessive vomiting during the pregnancy. Usually hyperemesis gravidarum associated with the protracted nausea and vomiting, weight loss more than 5kg of pre-pregnant weight, dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. The treatment modalities should be the pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. Based on the severity of the conditions the treatments modalities are getting vary. As the midwife, should provide emotional support and educate the mother about the dietary and life style modifications to prevent the further complications.

Full Text:



D. C. Dutta. Text book of Obstetrics. New Delhi: Jaypee Publication. ed 8th, 2015: 180-184.

Heidi Collins Fantasia. A new pharmacologic treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Nursing for Women’s health. 2014; 18(1): 73-77.

Roger Gadsby, et al. A prospective study of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. British Journal of General Practice. 1993; 43: 245 – 248.

The management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum. Royal college of obstetricians & Gynaecologists. Green – top Guideline no.69. 2016.

Wylde S et al. Morning sickness in pregnancy: Mini review of possible causes with proposal for monitoring by diagnostic methods. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 5(2): 261 – 267.

Mario Festin. Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Clinical Evidence. 2009; 06:1405.

Samantha E. Parker, et al (2014) Nausea and vomiting during Pregnancy and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in offspring. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2014; 28(6): 527-535.

Ronna L. Chan, et al. Maternal Influences on nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Matern Child Health J. 2011; 15(1): 122 – 127.

Sherman P. W & Flaxman S. M. Morning Sickness: A mechanism for protecting mother and embryo. The quarterly review of biology 2000; 75(2): 113 – 148.

Micheal et al. Hyperemesis Gravidarum – a serious issue during pregnancy: in-depth clinical review and treatment modalities. MOJ Women Health 2015; 1(2): 38-47.

Nicola Hill, et al. Management of severe nausea and vomiting in pregnant women. The pharmaceutical journal. 2013; 1-6.

Gillian V.Pepper, et al. Rates of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and dietary characteristics across populations. Proc. R. Soc. B, 2006; 273: 2675-2679.

Roger Gadsby, Verity Rawson, et al. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and resource implications: the NVP impact study. British Journal of General Practice. 2018. 1-6.

Neda Ebrahimi, et al. Optimal management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. International Journal of women’s health. 2010; 2: 241-248.

Binny Thomas, et al. Medication used in Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy – A review of safety and efficacy. Gynaecol Obstet 2015, 5(2): 270.

Judith A Smith, et al. Treatment and outcome of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Upto Date; 2018. Available at

O’Donnell A, McParlin C, et al. Treatment for hyperemesis gravidarum and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a systemic review and economic assessment. National Institute for Health Research. 2016; 20(74): ISSN 1366-5278.


  • There are currently no refbacks.