Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Effect of Synthetic and Aromatic amine antioxidants on physio-chemical properties with Moringaolefera biodiesel blends.

M.A Hakim


Stability of biodiesel is an important parameter for biodiesel users in worldwide due to the increasing transportation system. The present study focused is on the effect of antioxidants (synthetic and aromatic) addition on Moringaolefera biodiesel. The changes in physico-chemical properties were observed for both synthetic and aromatic amine antioxidants. In this study, two aromatic antioxidants N, N′-diphenyl-1, 4-phenylenediamine (DPPD) and N-phenyl-1, 4-phenylenediamine (NPPD) and three synthetic antioxidants butylatedhydroxy toluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroxyquinone (TBHQ) and diphenylamine (DPA) were used. Due to the addition of both antioxidants to moringa biodiesel, the rate of change of   kinematic viscosity and density were less compare to pure biodiesel. The addition of antioxidants with biodiesel, oxidation stability of biodiesel increased significantly. It was also found that, for higher blends aromatic amine antioxidants (AAAO) shows better oxidation stability (OS) and for lower blends synthetic antioxidants (SAO) shows better OS. However in some rare cases may act pro-oxidants. The outcome showed that by adding all the antioxidants to diesel fuel blends affected most of the crucial fuel properties.

Full Text:



Banerjee A, Chakraborty R. Parametric sensitivity in transesterification of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production—a review. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 2009;53:490-7.

He B-Q, Shuai S-J, Wang J-X, He H. The effect of ethanol blended diesel fuels on emissions from a diesel engine. Atmospheric Environment. 2003;37:4965-71.

Rashed MM, Kalam MA, Masjuki HH, Rashedul HK, Ashraful AM, Shancita I, et al. Stability of biodiesel, its improvement and the effect of antioxidant treated blends on engine performance and emission. RSC Advances. 2015;5:36240-61.

Ulrich A, Wichser A. Analysis of additive metals in fuel and emission aerosols of diesel vehicles with and without particle traps. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2003;377:71-81.

Leung DY, Wu X, Leung M. A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transesterification. Applied energy. 2010;87:1083-95.

Zheng S, Kates M, Dubé M, McLean D. Acid-catalyzed production of biodiesel from waste frying oil. Biomass and Bioenergy. 2006;30:267-72.

Patil PD, Deng S. Optimization of biodiesel production from edible and non-edible vegetable oils. Fuel. 2009;88:1302-6.

Dunn RO. Antioxidants for improving storage stability of biodiesel. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. 2008;2:304-18.

Gunstone FD, Hilditch TP. The union of gaseous oxygen with methyl oleate, linoleate, and linolenate. Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed). 1945:836-41.

Igbokwe JO, Nwufo OC, Nwaiwu CF. Effects of blend on the properties, performance and emission of palm kernel oil biodiesel. Biofuels. 2015:1-8.

Ramos MJ, Fernández CM, Casas A, Rodríguez L, Pérez Á. Influence of fatty acid composition of raw materials on biodiesel properties. Bioresource technology. 2009;100:261-8.

Smith MB, March J. March's advanced organic chemistry: reactions, mechanisms, and structure: John Wiley & Sons; 2007.

[13] Ramesha D, Bangari AS, Rathod CP, Chaitanya R S. Combustion, performance and emissions characteristics of a biogas fuelled diesel engine with fish biodiesel as pilot fuel. Biofuels. 2015:1-11.

Xin J, Saka S. Test methods for the determination of biodiesel stability. Biofuels. 2010;1:275-89.

Cosgrove JP, Church DF, Pryor WA. The kinetics of the autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids. 1987;22:299-304.

Jain S, Sharma M. Study of oxidation stability of Jatrophacurcas biodiesel/diesel blends. Int J Energy Environ. 2011;2:533-42.

Rawat DS, Joshi G, Lamba BY, Tiwari AK, Mallick S. Impact of additives on storage stability of Karanja (PongamiaPinnata) biodiesel blends with conventional diesel sold at retail outlets. Fuel. 2014;120:30-7.

Schober S, Mittelbach M. The impact of antioxidants on biodiesel oxidation stability. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 2004;106:382-9.

Dunn RO. Effect of antioxidants on the oxidative stability of methyl soyate (biodiesel). Fuel Processing Technology. 2005;86:1071-85.

Ryu K. The characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using a biodiesel with antioxidants. Bioresource technology. 2010;101:S78-S82.

Fattah IR, Masjuki H, Kalam M, Mofijur M, Abedin M. Effect of antioxidant on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with palm biodiesel blends. Energy Conversion and Management. 2014;79:265-72.

Fattah IR, Kalam M, Masjuki H, Wakil M. Biodiesel production, characterization, engine performance, and emission characteristics of Malaysian Alexandrian laurel oil. Rsc Advances. 2014;4:17787-96.

Tang H, De Guzman RC, Salley SO, Ng SK. The oxidative stability of biodiesel: Effects of FAME composition and antioxidant. Lipid Technology. 2008;20:249-52.

Shahabuddin M, Kalam M, Masjuki H, Bhuiya M, Mofijur M. An experimental investigation into biodiesel stability by means of oxidation and property determination. Energy. 2012;44:616-22.

Chen Y-H, Chen J-H, Luo Y-M, Shang N-C, Chang C-H, Chang C-Y, et al. Property modification of jatropha oil biodiesel by blending with other biodiesels or adding antioxidants. Energy. 2011;36:4415-21.

Karavalakis G, Karonis D, Stournas S. Evaluation of the oxidation stability of diesel/biodiesel blends using the modified rancimat method. SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants. 2009;2:839-49.

Knothe G. Some aspects of biodiesel oxidative stability. Fuel Processing Technology. 2007;88:669-77.

Domingos AK, Saad EB, Vechiatto WWD, Wilhelm HM, Ramos LP. The influence of BHA, BHT and TBHQ on the oxidation stability of soybean oil ethyl esters (biodiesel). Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 2007;18:416-23.

Xin J, Imahara H, Saka S. Kinetics on the oxidation of biodiesel stabilized with antioxidant. Fuel. 2009;88:282-6.

Karavalakis G, Hilari D, Givalou L, Karonis D, Stournas S. Storage stability and ageing effect of biodiesel blends treated with different antioxidants. Energy. 2011;36:369-74.

Lamba BY, Joshi G, Tiwari AK, Rawat DS, Mallick S. Effect of antioxidants on physico-chemical properties of EURO-III HSD (high speed diesel) and Jatropha biodiesel blends. Energy. 2013;60:222-9.

Obadiah A, Kannan R, Ramasubbu A, Kumar SV. Studies on the effect of antioxidants on the long-term storage and oxidation stability of Pongamiapinnata (L.) Pierre biodiesel. Fuel Processing Technology. 2012;99:56-63.

Saldaña MD, Martinez-Monteagudo SI. Oxidative stability of fats and oils measured by differential scanning calorimetry for food and industrial applications: INTECH Open Access Publisher; 2013.

Nascimento JA, Araújo KL, Epaminondas PS, Pontes AL, Souza AL, Queiroz N, et al. Ethanolics extracts of Moringa. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 2014;117:265-8.

Mittelbach M, Schober S. The influence of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 2003;80:817-23.

Mofijur M, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Rasul MG, Atabani AE, Hazrat MA, et al. Effect of Biodiesel-diesel Blending on Physico-chemical Properties of Biodiesel Produced from MoringaOleifera. Procedia Engineering. 2015;105:665-9.

De Guzman R, Tang H, Salley S, Ng KYS. Synergistic effects of antioxidants on the oxidative stability of soybean oil- and poultry fat-based biodiesel. JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 2009;86:459-67.

Liang YC, May CY, Foon CS, Ngan MA, Hock CC, Basiron Y. The effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on the oxidative stability of palm diesel. Fuel. 2006;85:867-70.

Karavalakis G, Stournas S. Impact of antioxidant additives on the oxidation stability of diesel/biodiesel blends. Energy and Fuels. 2010;24:3682-6.

Alptekin E, Canakci M. Determination of the density and the viscosities of biodiesel-diesel fuel blends. Renewable Energy. 2008;33:2623-30.

Geller DP, Adams TT, Goodrum JW, Pendergrass J. Storage stability of poultry fat and diesel fuel mixtures: Specific gravity and viscosity. Fuel. 2008;87:92-102.

Das LM, Bora DK, Pradhan S, Naik MK, Naik SN. Long-term storage stability of biodiesel produced from Karanja oil. Fuel. 2009;88:2315-8.


  • There are currently no refbacks.