Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access


Birendra Kumar Singh


The relationship between mean velocity of flow and mean depth of flow is obtained for the given data of 0.75-inch roughness bed data. The real root of the equation is found using false position method and it is found the real root obtained for the equation is nearly equal to the value of maximum mean depth of flow i.e. with respect to advantage of roughness point of view dmax.

Full Text:



A Caroglu, E.R (1972) “Friction factors is solid material systems “J. Hydraulic Div. Am. SOC. Civ. Eng, 98(HY 4),681 – 699

Alam, A.M.Z. and Kennedy J.F (1969)” Friction factors for flow in sand bed channels “J Hydraulic Div. Am. SOC Civ. Eng 95(HY 6), 1973 – 1992

Ben Chie Yen F. (January 1.2002) “Open channel flow resistance” Journal of the

Hydraulic Engg. Vol 128, No – 1 ASCE, PP,20 – 39

Bray, D.I. (1979) “Estimating average velocity in gravel bed – rivers “J Hydraulic Div. Am. SOC Civ. Eng. 105 (HY 9), 1103 – 1122

Bathurst, J.C., Flow Resistance of Large-Scale Roughness,” Journal of the Hydraulics

Division, ASCE, Vol. 104, No. HY12, Paper 14239, Dec., 1978, pp.1587.

Bathurst, J.C., Li, R-M., and Simsons, D.B., Hydraulics of Mountains Rivers, Report No. CER78-79JCB-RML-DBS55, Civil Engineering Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1979.

Bathurst, J.C., “Flow Resistance in Boulder-Bed Streams,” 22-28, 1980. University East Anglia/Institute Hydrology/Colorado State University International Workshop on Engineering Problems in the Management of Gravel Bed Rivers, held at Gregyong, Newtown, Wales, U.K. (Proceedings to be Published by John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.)

Charlton, F.G., Brown, P.M., and Benson, R.W., “The Hydraulic Geometry of Some Gravel Rivers in Britain.” Report No. ITI80. Hydraulics Research Station Wallingford, U.K., July 1978.

Day, T., “The channel Geometry of Mountain Streams.” Mountains Geomorydlogy Olav Slaymaker and H.J. McPherson, eds, Tantalus Research Ltd., B.C., 1972, pp. 141-149.

Day, T.T., discussion of “Resistance Equation for Alluvial-Channel Flow,” by D.E. Burkham and D.R. Dawdy, Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 103, No. HY5. Proc. Paper 12896, May, 1977, pp. 582-584.

Dey S, Raikar R.V. (2007) “Characteristic of loose rough boundary streams at near threshold” Journal of Hydraulic Engg. ASCE 133(3), 288-304

Flammer, G.H., Tullis,J. Mason, E.S., “Free Surface Velocity Gradient Flow Past Hemisphere,” Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 96, No.HY7, Proc Paper 7418, July, 1970, pp.1485-1502.

Golubtsov, V.V., “Hydraulic Resistance and Formula for Computing the Average Flow Velocity of Mountain Rivers,” Soviet Hydrology: Selected Papers, American Geophysical Union, No. 5, 1969, pp. 500-511.

Griffiths, G.A. (1981) “Flow resistance in course gravel bed rivers “J. Hydraulic Div. An soc. Civ. Eng. 107 (HY – 7), 899 – 918

Hartung, F., and Scheuerlein. H., “Macroturbulent Flow in Steep Open Channels with High Natural Roughness,” Proceedings of the Twelfih Congress of the International Association for Hydraulic Research, Fort Collins, Colo., Vol, 1, Sept., 1967, pp, 1-8.

Herbich, J.B., and Shulits, S., “Large-Scale Roughness in Open Channel Flow,” Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 90, No. HY6, Proc. Paper 4105, Nov., 1964, pp, 203-230.

Hey, R.D., “Flow Resistance in Gravel-Bed Rivers,” Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 105, No. HY4, Proc. Paper 14500, Apr., 1979, pp, 365-379.

Hey R.D (1979) “Flow resistance in gravel bed rivers “J Hydraulic Div Am SOC CIV Eng, 105 (HY – 4), 365 – 379.

Johansson, C.E., “Orientation of Pebbles in Running Water,” Geografiska Anneler, Vol. 45, Stockholan, Sweden, 1963, pp,85-112.

Judd, H.E., and Peterson, D.F.., “Hydraulics of Large Bed Element Channels,” Report No. PRWG 17-6, Utah Water Research Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 1969.

James C. Bathurst (December 1981) “Resistance Equation for Large Scale Roughness “Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol 107 NOHY-12, pp 1593-1613.

James C. Batharst (December 1981) “Resistance Equation for Large Scale Roughness” Journal of the Hydraulics Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 107 NO HY 12, PP 1593-1613.

James C. Bathurst (December 1978) “ Flow resistance of large-scale roughness

“Journal of the Hydraulic Division Vol 104NO12PP1587-1603

J. Aberle and G.M. Smart (2003) “The influence of roughness structures on flow resistance on steep slopes”, Journal of Hydraulic Research Vol 41, Issue 3, Available

online 01 Feb 2010,259-269

Kellerhals, R., “Runoff Routing Through Steep Natural Streams,” Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 96, No. HY11, Proc. Paper 7666, Nov., 1970,


LI, R-M., Simons, D.B., Ward, T.J., and Steele, K.S., “Phase 1 Report: Hydraulic Model Study of Flow Control Structures,” Report No. CER77-78RML-DBS-TJW, KSS15, Department of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., Nov., 1977.

Lovera, F. and kennedy J.F (1969) “Friction factors for flat – bed flows in sand channel” J Hydraulic Div , Am. Soc. Civ Eng 95 (HY 4) 1227 – 1234 .

Miller, J.P., “High Mountain Streams: Effects of Geology on Channel Characteristics and Bed Material,” Memoir No. 4, State Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, N.M., 1958.

Peterson, D.F., and Mohanty, P.K., “Flume Studies of Flow in Steep, Rough Channels,” Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 86, HY9, Proc. Paper 2653, Nov., 1960, pp,55-76.

Petryk, S. and shen, H.W (1971) “Direct measurement of shear stream in a flume, “J Hydraulic Div. Am. SOC. Civ. Eng. 97(HY – 6), 883 – 887

Thompson, S.M. and Campbell, P.L. (1979) “Hydraulics of a large channel paved with boulders” J. Hydraulics Research, 17(4), 341-354

Van RiJn, L.C. (1982), “Equivalent roughness of alluvial bed” J Hydraulics Div, Am, SOC.Civ.Eng. 108 (HY10), 1215-1218

Whiting P.J; and Dietrich W.E. (1990) “Boundary Shear Stress and roughness over mobile alluvial beds” J Hydraulic Engg 116(12), 1495-01511


  • There are currently no refbacks.